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A Review on Optogenetics and Its Applications in Addiction Research

Writer: David James Estrin

Optogenetics is a current tool used across disciplines to control membrane potential in genetically altered cells in vivo and in vitro. Dr. Gero Miesnböck introduced transgene expression in genetically modified mouse neurons to produce Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) to control membrane potential via photostimulation, a procedure he later coined "optogenetics" (Zemelman et al., 2002; Lima & Miesenböck, 2005; Miesenböck & Kevrekidis, 2005; Miesenböck, 2009). By genetically modifying an animal's genome, scientists are able to photo-stimulate action potentials (APs) in distinct neurons subpopulations thus controlling the neuron's function.

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The Need for a Pleasure-Based and Feminist-Informed Sexuality Education System

Writer: Hemapriya Dhanasekaran

While a sexuality education system in the United States based off a public health framing educates students on how to prevent HIV/STI transmission and unwanted pregnancies, it does not teach the power and importance of sexual agency and pleasure, especially for women. Sexual agency is defined as the "the ability to advocate for one's interests in the sexual arena" (Bay-Cheng, 2003).

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